Endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in the central nervous system
Persistent endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is thought to drive the pathology of many chronic disorders due to its potential to elicit aberrant inflammatory signaling and facilitate cell death. In neurodegenerative diseases, the accumulation of misfolded proteins and concomitant induction of ER stress in neurons contributes to neuronal dysfunction. In addition, ER stress responses induced in the surrounding neuroglia may promote disease progression by coordinating damaging inflammatory responses, which help fuel a neurotoxic milieu. Nevertheless, there still remains a gap in knowledge regarding the cell-specific mechanisms by which ER stress mediates neuroinflammation. In this review, we will discuss recently uncovered inflammatory pathways linked to the ER stress response. Moreover, we will summarize the present literature delineating how ER stress is generated in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Multiple Sclerosis, and highlight how ER stress and neuroinflammation intersect mechanistically within the central nervous system. The mechanisms by which stress-induced inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of neurodegenerative diseases remain poorly understood. Further examination of this interplay could present unappreciated insights into the development of neurodegenerative diseases, and reveal new therapeutic targets.
Digital Commons Citation
Sprenkle, N T.; Sims, S G.; Sánchez, C L.; and Meares, G P., "Endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in the central nervous system" (2017). Clinical and Translational Science Institute. 561.