Document Type


Publication Date



School of Pharmacy


Family Medicine


Purpose—Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat pain, inflammation, and fever in the USA. Unfortunately, NSAIDs have been associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, especially among NSAID users with established cardiovascular disease (CVD). In 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released an initial warning regarding NSAID use and CVD risk, and recently, in July 2015, released an updated statement strengthening this initial warning. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the rates of NSAID use among patients with CVD following the 2005 FDA warning regarding NSAID use and increased CVD risk. Methods—This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009–2010. Participants’ CVD status was determined by self-reported diagnosis. Current use of over the counter (OTC) NSAIDs was defined by selfreported use of ibuprofen or naproxen, and we identified the current use of prescription NSAIDs in the database of prescription medication. Results—Respondents with CVD were 2.1 times more likely to use OTC NSAIDs or prescription NSAIDs than respondents without CVD. Among CVD patients, respondents with angina and myocardial infarction were 60% more likely to use any form of NSAID, and respondents with congestive heart failure were less likely to use any form of NSAID than those with other forms of CVD. Conclusions—Our results indicate that there is still a large proportion of CVD patients using NSAIDs. It is now crucial to determine the reasons why prescribers are still prescribing NSAIDs despite the FDA warning.

Source Citation

Castelli G, Petrone A, Xiang J, Shrader C, King D. Rates of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Use in Patients with Established Cardiovascular Disease: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Study from NHANES 2009–2010. American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs. 2017;17(3):243-249. doi:10.1007/s40256-016-0212-1