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PURPOSE—The aim of the study was to compare prostate cancer–specific mortality (PCSM) in young men with clinically localized prostate cancer treated by either external beam radiation (EBRT) alone or brachytherapy with or without external beam radiation. METHODS AND MATERIALS—Utilizing the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database, 15,505 patients ≤60 years of age diagnosed with prostate cancer between 2004 and 2009 and treated with radiation therapy alone were identified. Incidence of PCSM was determined for both groups and compared using competing risk models. RESULTS—The overall 8-year PCSM for the study population was 1.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.6–2.2). For patients treated with EBRT or brachytherapy with or without external beam, the 8-year PCSM was found to be 2.8% (CI: 2.2–3.4) and 1.2% (CI: 0.9–1.6), respectively (p < 0.001). Univariable analysis demonstrated that brachytherapy was associated with lower PCSM risk (hazard ratio = 0.40; CI: 0.30–0.54; p < 0.001). High Gleason risk category, black race, higher Tumor (T) stage, and higher grade were all associated with greater mortality risk (p < 0.01). On multivariable analysis, brachytherapy continued to be associated with a significantly lower mortality risk (hazard ratio = 0.65; CI: 0.47–0.89;p = 0.008). Subgroup analyses found that among those with Gleason score ≥8, younger patients had increased risk of PCSM (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS—In men ≤60 years of age with prostate cancer, radiation therapy continues to offer excellent outcomes. After adjusting for relevant variables, the use of brachytherapy was associated with reduced PCSM compared to treatment with EBRT alone.

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Ashamalla H, Guirguis A, McCool K, et al. Brachytherapy improves outcomes in young men (≤60 years) with prostate cancer: A SEER analysis. Brachytherapy. 2017;16(2):323-329. doi:10.1016/j.brachy.2016.12.010