Document Type


Publication Date



School of Medicine


Microbiology, Immunology, and Cell Biology


Background—Post-extraction alveolar bone loss, mostly affecting the buccal plate, occurs despite regenerative procedures. To better understand possible determinants, this prospective case series assessed gingival blood perfusion and tissue molecular responses in relation to postextraction regenerative outcomes. Methods—Adults scheduled to receive bone grafting in maxillary, non-molar, single tooth extraction site were recruited. Clinical documentation included probing pocket depth (PD), keratinized tissue width (KT), tissue biotype (TB), plaque (P) and bleeding. Wound closure was clinically evaluated. Gingival blood perfusion was measured by Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF). Wound fluid (WF) and gingival biopsies were analyzed for protein levels and gene expression, respectively, of relevant molecular markers. Bone healing outcomes were determined radiographically (Cone Beam Computerized Tomography; CBCT). Healing was followed for 4 months. Results—Data from 15 patients (50 ± 5 years, 8 males) are reported. Postoperatively, neither complications nor changes in PD, KT or TB were observed. Postoperatively, LDF revealed decreased perfusion followed by hyperemia that persisted 1 month (p≤0.05). WF levels of angiopoietin-2, interleukin-8, tumor necrosis factor-α, and vascular endothelial growth factor peaked on day 6 (p≤0.05) and decreased thereafter. Only interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-α exhibited increased gene expression. Linear bone changes were negligible. Volumetric bone changes were minimal but statistically significant, with more bone loss when membrane was used (p=0.05). Conclusion—Gingival blood perfusion following post-extraction bone regenerative procedures follows an ischemia-reperfusion model. Transient increases in angiogenic factor levels and prolonged hyperemia characterize the soft tissue response. These soft tissue responses do not determine radiographic bone changes.

Source Citation

Alssum L, Eubank TD, Roy S, et al. Gingival Perfusion and Tissue Biomarkers During Early Healing of Postextraction Regenerative Procedures: A Prospective Case Series. Journal of Periodontology. 2017;88(11):1163-1172. doi:10.1902/jop.2017.170117