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Silent corticotroph staining pituitary adenoma (SCA) represents an uncommon subset of Non-Functioning adenomas (NFAs), hypothesized to be more locally aggressive. In this retrospective multicenter study, we investigate the safety and effectiveness of Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) in patients with SCA compared with other non-SCA NFA’s. Eight centers participating in the International Gamma-Knife Research Foundation (IGKRF) contributed to this study. Outcomes of 50 patients with confirmed SCAs and 307 patients with confirmed non-SCA NFA’s treated with SRS were evaluated. Groups were matched. SCA was characterized by a lack of clinical evidence of Cushing disease, yet with positive immunostaining for corticotroph. Median age was 55.2 years (13.7–87). All patients underwent at least one trans-sphenoidal tumor resection prior to SRS. SRS parameters were comparable as well. Median follow-up 40 months (6–163). Overall tumor control rate (TCR) 91.2% (n = 280). In the SCA group, TCR were 82% (n = 41) versus 94.1% (n = 289) for the control-NFA (p = 0.0065). The SCA group showed a significantly higher incidence of new post-SRS visual deficit (p < 0.0001) assigned to tumor progression and growth, and post-SRS weakness and fatigue (p < 0.0001). In univariate and multivariate analysis, only the status of silent corticotroph staining (p = 0.005, p = 0.009 respectively) and margin dose (p < 0.0005, p = 0.0037 respectively) significantly influenced progression rate. A margin dose of ≥17 Gy was noted to influence the adenoma progression rate in the entire cohort (p = 0.003). Silent corticotroph staining represents an independent factor for adenoma progression and hypopituitarism after SRS. A higher margin dose may convey a greater chance of TCR.

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Cohen-Inbar O, Xu Z, Lee C, et al. Prognostic significance of corticotroph staining in radiosurgery for non-functioning pituitary adenomas: a multicenter study. Journal of Neuro-Oncology. 2017;135(1):67-74. doi:10.1007/s11060-017-2520-y