Document Type


Publication Date



School of Public Health


Occupational & Environmental Health Sciences


Through this study, we assessed the knowledge of EMS providers regarding needle stick injuries (NSIs) and examined differences by demographics. This cross-sectional study used a random sample of certified EMS providers in West Virginia. The survey consists of three sections: sociodemographic characteristics, whether or not got NSIs in the past 12 months, whether or not received needle stick training before. A total of 248 out of 522 (47.31%) EMS providers completed the survey. The majority of EMS providers (81.99%, n = 202) reported no NSI ever and 18.21% (n = 45) had at least one NSI within past 12 months. Chi square test was used and there was a statistically significant association between NSI occurrence and age (P < 0.01); certification level (P = 0.0005); and years of experience (P < 0.0001). Stratification methods were used and there was high varying proportion in NSIs between urban areas (38.50%) and rural areas (14.70%) among females (OR 0.28, CI 0.075–1.02, P = 0.05). Our survey of NSIs among EMS providers found that older, more highly certified, and more experienced providers reported higher frequencies of NSIs. Female EMS providers are more prone to NSIs in urban areas compared to women in rural areas. The results indicate a need to further examine NSIs and provide information regarding the safety precautions among urban and rural EMS providers.

Source Citation

Alhazmi RA, Parker RD, Wen S. Needlestick Injuries Among Emergency Medical Services Providers in Urban and Rural Areas. Journal of Community Health. 2017;43(3):518-523. doi:10.1007/s10900-017-0446-0