Document Type


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School of Nursing


Background—African Americans with heart failure (HF) have the highest rates of depression among all ethnicities in the United States. Objectives—To compare the effects by race on depressive symptoms and topics discussed in the first clinic appointment after HF hospitalization. Methods—This study is a secondary analysis of data obtained from a randomized clinical trial that tested a patient group discussion of HF self-management intervention with 93 Caucasians and 77 African Americans. Results—The reduction in depressive symptoms was significantly greater among African American patients within the intervention group (F = 3.99, p = .047) than controls. There were significant differences by race in four topics (dietitian referral, appointment date, help preparing discussion questions, and what to do about worsening HF symptoms) concerning patient-physician discussions. Conclusion—The intervention groups had a greater effect in reducing depressive symptoms among African Americans than Caucasians. Preparing patients for discussions at physician appointments on diet, depressive symptoms, and HF symptoms is recommended.

Source Citation

Piamjariyakul U, Thompson NC, Russell C, Smith CE. The effect of nurse-led group discussions by race on depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure. Heart & Lung. 2018;47(3):211-215. doi:10.1016/j.hrtlng.2018.02.005