Document Type


Publication Date



School of Pharmacy


Pharmaceutical Sciences


Objective. To develop an effective method in teaching pharmacogenomics as a part of a new course, Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacogenomics. Methods. Teaching effectiveness was measured by quizzes, retrospective pre- and post-surveys, team activities, and journal reflections. Four team activities were included in the course: genomic disease, patient case, genetic counselor and a debate about personalized medicine. Outcomes and course impact were evaluated at the end of the course. The evaluation methods included the assessment of knowledge, students’ perceptions regarding the utility of team activities, the impact of the course on students’ confidence to discuss pharmacogenomics with health care providers or patients, and long-term knowledge retention, measured in the following P2 semester. Results. Seventy-six students were enrolled in the course. Multiple assessments during the course demonstrated that students’ knowledge of pharmacogenomics improved. The team activities had a positive impact on student learning, and the course improved their confidence level to discuss pharmacogenomics with another health care provider or a patient. While 86% of the students considered themselves “unconfident,” “somewhat unconfident” or “neither confident nor unconfident” at the beginning of the course, 91% reported being “confident” or “somewhat confident” by the end of the course. This increase in confidence was statistically significant. Furthermore, students showed knowledge retention six months after taking the course. Conclusion. Implementation of a new course in pharmacogenomics was effective and well received by the students. It also prepared students for system-based therapeutics courses later in the curriculum.

Source Citation

Gálvez-Peralta M, Szklarz GD, Geldenhuys WJ, Lockman PR. An Effective Approach to Teaching Pharmacogenomics in the First Year of Pharmacy Curriculum. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. November 2017:ajpe6345. doi:10.5688/ajpe6345