Chambers College of Business and Economics
Technological advancements like the presence of smart phones and body cameras have led to increased monitoring of police, but little evidence exists on their impact. We address these problems using data on fouls from football matches in five European football leagues over six seasons. This period contains exogenous changes in monitoring rule enforcers through introduction of Video Assistant Referee review and limited "bystanders" from Covid-19 restrictions. Results from difference-in-differences models estimated separately for each league indicate that both events influenced the number of fouls called with substantial heterogeneity across leagues and home/away teams.
Digital Commons Citation
Humphreys, Brad R.; Marsella, Alexander; and Perez, Levi, "The effect of monitoring and crowds on crime and law enforcement: A natural experiment from European football" (2022). Economics Faculty Working Papers Series. 67.