Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



School of Dentistry

Committee Chair

Samuel O. Dorn

Committee Member

R. Constance Wiener

Committee Member

Steven B. Whitaker



Researchers have compared the differences between hand compaction of root-end filling bioceramics with compaction of these materials by hand followed by ultrasonic activation (hand/ultrasonic compaction). Additionally, most of these researchers did not utilize Micro-Computed Tomography (Micro-CT) analysis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate total porosity volume of three different bioceramics when compacted by hand alone versus hand/ultrasonic compaction using Micro-CT Analysis.

Materials and methods:

Seventy-two human maxillary central incisors were selected for the study. All were subjected to orthograde endodontic treatment followed by root tip resection 3-mm from the apex at a 90° to the long axis of the root. A standard retrograde preparation of 3-mm depth was created with an ultrasonic tip. Samples were assigned to six groups (n = 12) according to the root-end filling material and method used: ProRoot® MTA compacted by hand alone; ProRoot® MTA compacted by hand/ultrasonic compaction; Biodentine® compacted by hand alone; Biodentine® compacted by hand/ultrasonic compaction; EndoSequence® BC putty compacted by hand alone; and EndoSequence® BC compacted by hand/ultrasonic compaction. Teeth were scanned with Micro-CT to evaluate total porosity volume. A Wilcoxon test was conducted to determine if there was a difference between the groups compacted by hand alone and the hand/ultrasonic compaction group.


The results failed to indicate a significant difference between the groups compacted by hand alone and the groups compacted by hand/ultrasonic activation (p= 0.8087). Additionally, each technique among each of the materials failed to show significance, indicating that ultrasonic activation produces similar total porosity volume compared to hand compaction alone.


Within the limitations of the present in vitro study, both hand compaction alone and ultrasonic activation resulted in similar total porosity volume.