Date of Graduation
College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences
Physical Education Teacher Education
The study compared the effects of Direct Instruction (DI) with DI+Environmental Design Instruction (EDI) on the refinement of both simple and difficult gymnastics skills refinement. Four boys aged six to eight with two years of gymnastics training experiences participated in the simple skill experiment (running tuck jump on the springboard). Four boys aged 11 to 13 with more than three years of gymnastics training experiences participated in the difficult skill experiment (mushroom circles). Three dependent variables were measured in the experiment of running tuck jump and they were: (1) the participant's hip angle while they jumped at the highest point, (2) the participant's back point while they jumped at the highest point, and (3) the participant's jump height. Two dependent variables were measured in the experiment of mushroom circles and they were: (1) the participant's torso angle and (2) the participant's arm angle. Alternating treatments single-case research design was used for both experiments in which two treatments were alternated across daily sessions with one treatment in effect for each day. The results showed that in the experiment of running tuck jump, DI+EDI worked better for participants in bringing knees closer to their chest when they jumped at the highest point. The DI+EDI also helped the participants jump higher compared with DI. However, DI+EDI caused a more negative effect on the participants' back angle. In the experiment of mushroom circles, DI+EDI was not better or even worth than DI in helping participants' body extension and opening arm angle, although participants' form did not have an improving trend in either of the teaching methods.
Chen, Han, "The Effects of the Environmental Design Instruction on the Students' Gymnastics Skill Refinement" (2012). Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports. 201.