Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



Eberly College of Arts and Sciences



Committee Chair

Roy Tunick.


This study examined the effectiveness of "counseling as a related service" in Hawaii's public schools by examining the improvement on a teacher rating scale and also examining counseling minutes received by these same students. This study utilized 346 students receiving Level 4 and Level 5 services who were first refereed for "counseling as a related service" during the first quarter of 2055. Improvement is measured using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, Second Edition (BASC-2) (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 2004). Findings revealed that counseling interventions indicated statistically significant change in T Scores on the BASC-2 from Pre assessment to Post assessment. Multivariate Analyses of Variance were performed on composite scales and subscales of the BASC-2 at Pre assessment and Post assessment to address the main function of this paper. Follow-up ANOVAs were performed where statistically indicated. This study also examined the impact of minutes of specific counseling interventions (individual counseling, group counseling, and family education) on change in T Scores from Pre assessment to Post assessment on the BASC-2 TRS. The specific counseling minutes did not indicate a statistically significant change as was hypothesized. Regression analyses and correlation analyses were performed with no statistically significant results. T Scores were grouped into categories of significance and examined using Chi-Square analyses. Results indicate statistically significant results. Also discussed are clinical applications and suggestions for future research.