Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Education and Human Services


Curriculum & Instruction/Literacy Studies

Committee Chair

Richard Hartnett.


This research study examined the leadership styles of West Virginia University Extension Service County Program Coordinators from two perspectives. A sample of coordinators (n = 33) completed Bolman and Deal's Leadership Orientations (Self) Survey and Extension Service Committee members (n = 152) completed a Leadership Orientations (Other ) Survey. Descriptive procedures, Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients, and qualitative techniques were used to analyze the data.;Survey scores for the structural, human resource, political, and symbolic leadership frames were categorized into four leadership styles. Findings revealed the majority of coordinators (39%) reported none of the four leadership frames were used frequently. The single frame style was the next most frequently used style (33%), followed by paired frame style (15%), and multiple frame style (12%). Nearly three-fourths of the coordinators had a no frame style or a single frame style. Analysis of demographic variables indicated a significant relationship existed between program center assignment and frame style. Coordinators' self-rated leadership styles were compared with mean ratings from their County Extension Service Committee members. Committee members perceived coordinators to use a multiple frame style more frequently than coordinators perceived that they used. The majority of committee members reported a multiple frame style (55%), no frame style (21%), single frame style (18%), and paired frame style (6%). Eight of the 33 (24%) coordinator-committee member matched scores agreed on the leadership style; twenty-five (76%) of the matched scores did not agree. Coordinators with self-rated multiple frame styles were significantly more likely to also be perceived by committee members as a multiple frame style leader. Coordinators' surveys included open-ended questions on accomplishments, challenges, leadership skills, and behaviors. Office relationships, supervisory authority, budget issues, and lack of funding were common response themes.;This study has implications for extension organizations. Leaders at every level need to possess and frequently use structural, human resource, political, and symbolic leadership frame skills. Extension organizations need to understand leadership perceptions and strengthen competencies in order to deal effectively with today's leadership challenges and maximize leadership capacity.