Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Education and Human Services


Curriculum & Instruction/Literacy Studies

Committee Chair

Helen M. Hazi

Committee Co-Chair

Reagan P. Curtis

Committee Member

Ernest R. Goeres

Committee Member

Patricia A. Haught

Committee Member

Thomas S. Sloane


This study examined a) institutional factors that administrators see as facilitating peer tutoring programs and b) institutional factors that administrators see as forming barriers to peer tutoring programs. In addition, a comparison was made of administrators' perceptions based on the following institutional demographic factors: department affiliation, enrollment, highest degree awarded, and Carnegie classification. The data were collected through an electronic survey instrument, Administrative and Faculty Factors that Contribute to the Institutionalization of Peer Tutoring in Higher Education, developed specifically for this study and based on the work of Dr. Anthony Pina (2005, 2008a, 2008b), who studied the institutionalization of distance learning programs and factors that institutionalize programs in higher education; and Dr. Vincent Tinto (1997, 2006-7), an expert on both retention and peer tutoring, who identified a gap in the literature on policies and practices in higher education which enable peer tutoring programs to endure and become institutionalized and in so doing, enable schools to be more successful in increasing student GPAs and retaining students. The sample included 192 administrators and faculty, who were members of Region II in the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA), with an interest in and knowledge about academic tutoring programs, and who were involved in their supervision, evaluation, and delivery of services. Most of the respondents (87 percent) were administrators from public institutions, who oversaw peer tutoring programs but were not involved in the day-to-day operations. Results of the study revealed that centralization -- having one department oversee the implementation, supervision, and assessment of peer tutoring; and collaboration -- having regular meetings between Student Affairs and Academic Affairs to plan and access the program, are key to the success of peer tutoring. In addition, the results of this study presented new research on peer tutoring and provided guidance that may be used by administrators and faculty to a) evaluate existing peer tutoring programs to determine strengths, weaknesses, and areas for improvement; b) establish priorities in developing new peer tutoring programs; and c) develop strategies that will lead to the improvement and institutionalization of peer tutoring. The institutionalization factors identified in this study provided a model that may be used as a basis for cooperation between those who oversee the supervision, evaluation, and assessment of peer tutoring (administrators) and those who oversee the day-to-day operations of peer tutoring (faculty).