Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design


Recreation, Parks and Tourism Resources

Committee Chair

David Smaldone.


Outdoor orientation programs have shown success in helping students transition to college life. Research has shown that outcomes for students participating in a first year seminar include achieving higher grade point averages, higher persistence, measured by completion of a degree, and taking less time to complete a degree program. This study used Crawford, Godbey, and Jackson's hierarchical model of structural, interpersonal and intrapersonal constraints to leisure. An online survey was used to measure constraints to participation in Adventure WV. Students tended to perceive structural constraints as the most common constraints. Results indicated that female students tended to perceive intrapersonal constraints more so than males. Students from out of state perceived more structural constraints than students from West Virginia. The constraint items reveal significant findings for male and female students, students with different socio-demographic backgrounds, and students from different parts of the United States. Recommendations were made to Adventure West Virginia to increase participation in an outdoor orientation program.;Keywords: recreation constraints, outdoor orientation programs, first year experience.