Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Education and Human Services


Curriculum & Instruction/Literacy Studies

Committee Chair

Johnna Bolyard.


The purpose of this mixed methods study was to describe the current state of Algebra I instruction for students with mathematical learning disabilities (MLD) in West Virginia and teachers. preparation for this practice, as perceived by teachers. Further, this study examined the extent teachers. instructional practices for teaching students with MLD Algebra I aligned with best practices recommended in the research literature. Fifty-seven educators from West Virginia who taught Algebra I to students with Mathematical Learning Disabilities completed the Survey of Instructional Practices Implemented by Algebra I General and Special Educators When Educating Students with a MLD. In addition, a subset of five survey respondents participated in a telephone interview. Descriptive analyses were performed on the quantitative data, and correlations and relations were examined comparing teachers on demographic variables. The qualitative data analyses included conventional content analysis of the literature and open-ended survey responses, and directed content analysis of the interview transcripts. The results from this study described the varied current state of Algebra I instruction for students with MLD and teachers preparation for teaching Algebra I to students with MLD in West Virginia. Algebra I and Algebra Support educators reported the use of five literature recommended practices for Algebra I instruction to students with MLD during typical classroom instruction: (a) the use of technology, (b) cognitive instructional strategies, (c) explicit instruction, (d) graphic organizers, and (e) peer assisted learning. However, Algebra I and Algebra Support educators reported not using manipulatives or CRA as part of their typical classroom instruction. Further, correlations existed between specific educator characteristics and manipulative use.