Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences


Physical Education Teacher Education

Committee Chair

Sean M. Bulger

Committee Co-Chair

Robert L. Wiegand


The primary purpose of this study was to examine the test re-test reliability of three versions of the 3-Cone Test (3CR). In addition, comparisons between the versions of the tests; and the relationships with leg dominance and body mass index (BMI) were to be determined. Forty students enrolled in classes in the Department of Physical Education at a mid-Atlantic university participated. On each of the testing days the participants performed ten total trials. In a random order, they performed three trials to the right (3CR), three to the left (3CL), and two modified trials (3CMR and 3CML), in which a visual cue was given to indicate which path was to be followed. Intra-class correlations (ICC) indicate a moderate to high reliability for the four tests, 3CR 0.81 (0.66-0.84 95%CI), 3CL 0.73 (0.54-0.85), 3CMR .83(0.71-0.91), and 3CML 0.80 (0.65-0.89). Small standard error of the measurement (SEM) were found and ranged from 0.25-0.34. Pearson correlations between tests were high (0.82-0.92) on day one as well as day two (0.84-0.89). Having only six left-footed participants did not allow for comparisons between dominant side and test direction; however, BMI was moderately correlated with each of the tests ranging from 0.70-0.73. These results indicate each version of the 3CR is reliable; however, further testing is needed with athletic populations. The high correlation indicates only one version of the test is needed to reliably test for agility. By definition only the 3CMR and 3CML should be considered tests of agility due to their inclusion of a reactive component. Future studies utilizing agility testing and training should incorporate technology including gate systems and video analysis. These tools will allow for the better design of open tests that simulate game conditions.