Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences


Sport and Exercise Psychology

Committee Chair

Edward Etzel.


This study examined baseball coaches' attitudes and experiences with sport psychology. The researcher used a descriptive and multivariate approach to explore baseball coaches' relationship with sport psychology professionals and sport psychology services. A modified version of the Sport Psychology Attitudes Revised Coaches -- 2 (SPARC-2) (Zakrajsek, 2011) was administered to survey coaches' stigma tolerance towards sport psychology, confidence in sport psychology consultation, openness to hiring a sport psychology professional, and cultural preference towards sport psychology practitioners. Additional survey items were included to address coaches' experiences with sport psychology. All 2013 members of the American Baseball Coaches Association and all 2012-2013 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I, II, and III head baseball coaches were asked to participate. Participants completed an online survey to investigate the above-mentioned factors and the relationships between variables such as coach's age, years coaching, education level, and primary job responsibility, with coaches' attitudes and experience with sport psychology. Descriptive analyses revealed that the majority of baseball coaches had some prior exposure to sport psychology, generally had positive attitudes towards sport psychology, and intended to use sport psychology services in the future. Logistic regression analyses revealed that stigma tolerance, confidence in sport psychology, and previous experience with sport psychology can help predict coaches' intention to use sport psychology services. Findings from this study may benefit baseball coaches, athletes, and sport psychology professionals, and provide insight into the current place of sport psychology in baseball.