Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences


Sport and Exercise Psychology

Committee Chair

Sam J Zizzi


This study examined (1) coaches' attitudes and stage of change for sport psychology (SP) service use immediately following a tailored workshop and (2) the impact of a stage-matched intervention on coaches' attitudes, stage of change, and behavioral usage patterns during a one-month follow-up. Ninety swim coaches participated in the SP workshop and a total of 53 swim coaches (30 in the stage-matched group and 23 in the control group) completed the one-month follow-up. Eleven tennis coaches participated in the SP workshop and none of the tennis coaches completed the follow-up. Some evidence supported the impact of a tailored SP workshop on stage of change, with approximately 13% of swim coaches and 18% of tennis coaches experiencing positive cognitive shifts from precontemplation to contemplation immediately post-workshop. Although, several two-way mixed ANOVAs did not reveal significant interactions (group x time), main effects for TIME found that swim coaches' personal openness, perceived barriers, self-efficacy and intentions to use SP services significantly increased while perceived barriers significantly decreased immediately following the SP workshop. Furthermore, swim coaches' perceived barriers, perceived behavioral control, and self-efficacy were maintained one month following the SP workshop while personal openness and intentions returned close to their pre-workshop means. Lastly, no differences were found between the stage-matched and control group with regard to behavioral SP usage patterns (e.g., contacting a SP consultant, seeking out more information about SP). However, approximately 30% to 40% of tennis and swim coaches accessed the website during the four-week follow-up. The appropriateness of the transtheoretical model of behavior change applied to SP service use with coaches and the use of stage-matched interventions will be discussed.