Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design


Forest Resource Management

Committee Chair

Robert C Burns

Committee Co-Chair

John Confer

Committee Member

Jinyang Deng

Committee Member

Chad D. Pierskalla

Committee Member

Steven W. Selin.


Studies have established that the theory of planned behavior (TPB) is a simple but effective model for providing theoretical explanation as to why people participate in a given recreation activity, including general hunting activity. Understanding leisure constraints is another popular approach in leisure research, which is considered more useful from the practitioners' point of view. Literature suggested that significant relationships exist between constraint dimensions and constructs of theory of planned behavior. It was assumed that integrating constraints to TPB might not only enhance the predicting power of the TPB but might also provide a practical dimension to it. The aims of this research were: (1) determine whether TPB can explain specific hunting activity (deer hunting), and (2) determine if the predictors of the TPB mediate the effects of different constraints dimensions on deer hunting intensions, and (3) determine if constraint integrated TPB can better explain deer hunting behavior than the original TPB. The data were collected from a two-staged mail back surveys of the hunters from Oregon in 2009 and 2010. The response rate was 20% and 67% in the 2009 and 2010 survey, respectively. Mediation analysis was conducted using Kenny's Criteria. Model assessments were performed using structural equation modeling (SEM). Model comparison was done by comparing Chi-square ratio and AIC and BIC.;The findings of the research are presented in the form of three articles for peer reviewed journals, two of which have already published. The first two articles were based on the 360 responses received in 2009 mail back survey. The third paper was based on the responses of 242 respondents who participated in both 2009 and 2010 surveys.;Building on the exiting knowledge of application of TPB, the first article verified that TPB can successfully explain specific hunting intentions (deer hunting intentions) and unlike general hunting activity, specific hunting activity is less under volitional control. The second article expanded our knowledge regarding the roles of TPB constructs in mediating the effects of constraint dimensions on deer hunting intentions. It demonstrated that constraint dimensions are negatively related with the TPB constructs and TPB constructs mediated the effects of constraint dimensions on deer hunting intentions, directly and indirectly. The third article demonstrated that TPB can successfully describe deer hunting behavior and three constraint dimensions integrated TPB models could successfully explain more variance in reported hunting participation. It also provided opportunities of future research for leisure constraint researchers by providing the evidences of constraint negotiating roles of the TPB predictors.;Recommendations are made to use more comprehensive measures of attitudes, subjective norms and PBC as well as specific measures of constraints for better understanding of the entire phenomenon especially the specific roles of attitudes and subjective norms in the original and extended TPB model. Practitioners are advised to develop programs for enhancing PBC and for reducing internal and external constraints through skill development and providing more satisfying hunting opportunities by enhancing quality and quality of game population.