## Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

### A study on Dicycles and Eulerian Subdigraphs

2016

Dissertation

PhD

#### College

Eberly College of Arts and Sciences

Mathematics

Hong Jian Lai

John Goldwasser

Rong Luo

K Subramani

#### Committee Member

Jerzy Wojciechowski

#### Abstract

1. Dicycle cover of Hamiltonian oriented graphs. A dicycle cover of a digraph D is a family F of dicycles of D such that each arc of D lies in at least one dicycle in F. We investigate the problem of determining the upper bounds for the minimum number of dicycles which cover all arcs in a strong digraph. Best possible upper bounds of dicycle covers are obtained in a number of classes of digraphs, including strong tournaments, Hamiltonian oriented graphs, Hamiltonian oriented complete bipartite graphs, and families of possibly non-hamiltonian digraphs obtained from these digraphs via a sequence of 2-sum operations.;2. Supereulerian digraphs with given local structures . Catlin in 1988 indicated that there exist graph families F such that if every edge e in a graph G lies in a subgraph He of G isomorphic to a member in F, then G is supereulerian. In particular, if every edge of a connected graph G lies in a 3-cycle, then G is supereulerian. The purpose of this research is to investigate how Catlin's theorem can be extended to digraphs. A strong digraph D is supereulerian if D contains a spanning eulerian subdigraph. We show that there exists an infinite family of non-supereulerian strong digraphs each arc of which lies in a directed 3-cycle. We also show that there exist digraph families H such that a strong digraph D is supereulerian if every arc a of D lies in a subdigraph Ha isomorphic to a member of H. A digraph D is symmetric if (x, y) ∈ A( D) implies (y, x) ∈ A( D); and is symmetrically connected if every pair of vertices of D are joined by a symmetric dipath. A digraph D is partially symmetric if the digraph obtained from D by contracting all symmetrically connected components is symmetrically connected. It is known that a partially symmetric digraph may not be symmetrically connected. We show that symmetrically connected digraphs and partially symmetric digraphs are such families. Sharpness of these results are discussed.;3. On a class of supereulerian digraphs. The 2-sum of two digraphs D1 and D2, denoted D1 ⊕2 D2, is the digraph obtained from the disjoint union of D 1 and D2 by identifying an arc in D1 with an arc in D2. A digraph D is supereulerian if D contains a spanning eulerian subdigraph. It has been noted that the 2-sum of two supereulerian (or even hamiltonian) digraphs may not be supereulerian. We obtain several sufficient conditions on D1 and D 2 for D1 ⊕2 D 2 to be supereulerian. In particular, we show that if D 1 and D2 are symmetrically connected or partially symmetric, then D1 ⊕2 D2 is supereulerian.

COinS

#### DOI

https://doi.org/10.33915/etd.5088