Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Creative Arts


School of Music

Committee Chair

Keith Jackson

Committee Co-Chair

Mitchell Arnold

Committee Member

Alison Helm

Committee Member

Paul Scea

Committee Member

Virginia Thompson

Committee Member

Michael Vercelli


This document investigates the cultural and historical significance of the use of the trombone in the shout band of the United House of Prayer for All People the Church on the Rock of the Apostolic Faith, a predominately African-American religious institution founded by Marcelino da Graca (also referred to as Bishop Charles M. Grace). Specific attention will be placed on the use of the trombone as a pillar of musical expression in the shout band tradition. Research has been limited to the most prominent House of Prayer houses located in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Sources for this document have been gathered from published books, dissertations, articles, on-line sources, discography and personal interviews.;This study discusses the life of Marcelino da Graca and his immigration from the Cape Verde Island of Brava to the United States until his death in 1960. Topics pertinent to Marcelino's assimilation in American culture as well as the establishment and expansion of the House of Prayer will also be investigated and scrutinized. Furthermore, an exploration of the shout band and its history will be discussed, outlining its hierarchy, specific roles, and pedagogical practices throughout the ensemble. A portion of this research will discuss trombonists who were "made" in the shout band and who utilized this particular tradition as a platform to pursue musical endeavors in both sacred and secular musical arenas.;The states of Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina were visited to obtain first-hand accounts of past and present shout band members. These first-hand accounts have provided significant individual insight and details about participants' personal House of Prayer knowledge and shout band history. Lastly, interviewees were allowed to expound on their overall religious experience both as a member of the House of Prayer and as a member of the shout band.;The purpose of this document is to advance the study of this under researched topic because of its importance to American music culture as well as the trombone community at large. It is my hope that this document serves as a worthy addition to the current research on this topic by providing historical background as well as first-hand accounts of the use of the trombone in the shout band tradition.