Date of Graduation
Eberly College of Arts and Sciences
Geology and Geography
J Steven Kite
Groundwater response to stream stage fluctuations was studied using a year-long time series of stream stage and well heads in Glen Dale and New Martinsville, WV. Stream stage fluctuations exerted primary control over groundwater levels, especially during high flows. The location and operation of river pools created by dams alter groundwater flow paths and velocities. Aquifers are more prone to surface water infiltration in the upper reaches of pools than in lower reaches. Aquifer diffusivity is heterogeneous within and between the two sites.;Temperature fluctuations were observed for 2.5 years in 14 wells in three alluvial aquifers. Temperature signals have 2 components corresponding to pump-on and pump-off periods. Both components vary seasonality at different magnitudes. While pump-off temperatures fluctuated up to 3.8o C seasonally, short-term temperature shifts induced by turning the pump on were 0.2 to 2.5o C. Pumping-induced temperature shifts were highest in magnitude in summer and winter. Groundwater temperature lagged behind that of surface water by approximately six months. Pumping induced and seasonal temperature shifts were spatially and temporally complex but indicate stream exfiltration is a major driver for a number of these wells.;Numerical simulation of aquifer response to pumping show different conditions before and after well-field development. During pre-development, the stream was losing at high flow and gaining at low flow. During post-development, however, the stream was losing at high flow and spatially variable at low flow. While bank storage gained only during high stage, stream exfiltration occurred year-round. Pumping induced stream exfiltration by creating an extensive cone of depression beneath the stream in both upstream and downstream directions.;Spatially and temporally variable groundwater-surface water interaction next to a regulated stream were studied using analytical and numerical models, based on field observations. Seasonality plays an important role in these interactions, but human activity may also alter its intensity.
Maharjan, Madan, "Hydraulic and Thermal Response to Intermittent Pumping in Unconfined Alluvial Aquifers along a Regulated Stream" (2017). Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports. 6141.