Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences


Sport and Exercise Psychology

Committee Chair

Michelle A Sandrey

Committee Co-Chair

Damien Clement

Committee Member

Allison Hetrick


Context: Core stability is vital for appropriate functional activity and performance. The core is the primary link to the kinetic chain that allows for optimal performance. When one component of the core is either inhibited or overactive, an imbalance occurs. Antagonist and agonist muscles must function together to maintain appropriate muscle balance. Both the lower abdominal muscles and gluteus maximus muscle work together to create appropriate kinetic chain functioning. However, it is unknown whether a change in lower abdominal strength influences a change in gluteus maximus strength over time. Objective: The purpose was to determine if a change in lower abdominal strength influenced a change in gluteus maximus strength overtime. Design: The study was conducted as a prospective longitudinal repeated measures design. Setting: The testing took place at a sports medicine research lab at a DI University. Only one clinician administered the testing. Patients and Other Participants: A total of 47 participants (13 males, 21.54+/-1.45 years, 177.21+/- 6.74 cm, 80.77+/-12.80 kg; 34 females, 20.06+/-1.51 years, 166.14+/-6.73 cm, 72.16+/-14.08 kg), from a pre-athletic training and athletic training program were used in the study. All participants volunteered for the study, were current students in the pre-athletic training or athletic training programs, and had no history of injury within six months of testing. Interventions: The participants were asked to complete the double leg lowering test (DLL) and gluteus maximus manual muscle test (GM MMT) to the best of their ability. There was no warm up prior to testing, but the testing protocol was demonstrated. The data was collected over a ten week period, in increments of five weeks. Participants completed a baseline test. Two post-testing measurements were taken and occurred every 5 weeks. The post testing measurements were completed to the exact specifications as the first testing period. Main Outcome Measures: The dependent variables were both lower abdominal strength as assessed by the DLL (in degrees), and gluteus maximus strength as tested by the GM MMT (%MAXEXT). Results: Positive, medium relationships were found from DLL posttest two to right GM MMT baseline (r=.306, p=.036), to right GM MMT posttest one (r=.319, p=.029) and to right GM MMT posttest two (r=.316, p=.030). The correlations between the DLL and left GM MMT were all found to be small relationships (r=.177-.190). A positive, medium relationship was found between DLL baseline and DLL posttest two (r=.414, p=.004), as well as DLL posttest one and DLL posttest two (r=.365, p=.012). Further analysis of the left and right GMax, yielded significance between baseline and posttest two for DLL (P=.004) and left GM MMT (P<.001). There was also significance between baseline and posttest one for right GM MMT (P=.046), as well as posttest one and posttest two for right GM MMT (P=.033). There was no significance between gender and activity, and the muscle strength tests. Conclusions: Gluteus maximus strength changes and lower abdominal strength changes were shown to correlate over time. Both gluteus maximus strength and abdominal strength were shown to decrease overtime without intervention. However, gender and activity did not play a significant role in muscle strength over time.