Wei Qi

Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



Statler College of Engineering and Mineral Resources


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

Committee Chair

Hailin Li

Committee Co-Chair

Nigel N Clark

Committee Member

Yu Gu

Committee Member

Natalia A Schmid

Committee Member

WScott Wayne


The control strategy of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) has been an active research area in the past decades. The main goal of the optimal control strategy is to maximize the fuel economy and minimize exhaust emissions while also satisfying the expected vehicle performance. Dynamic programming (DP) is an algorithm capable of finding the global optimal solution of HEV operation. However, DP cannot be used as a real-time control approach as it requires pre-known driving information. The equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) is a real-time control approach, but it always results in local optima due to the non-convex cost function. In my research, a ECMS with DP combined model (ECMSwDP) was proposed, which was a compromise between optimality and real-time capability. In this approach, the optimal equivalent factor (lambda) for a real-time ECMS controller can be derived using ECMSwDP for a given driving condition. The optimal lambda obtained using ECMSwDP was further processed to derive the lambda map, which was a function of vehicle operation and driving information. Six lambda maps were generated corresponding to the developed representative driving patterns. At each distance segment of a drive cycle, the suitable lambda value is available from one of the six lambda maps based on the identified driving pattern and current vehicle operation.;An adaptive ECMS (A-ECMS) model with a driving pattern identification model is developed to achieve the real-time optimal control for a HEV. A-ECMS was capable of controlling the ratio of power provided by the ICE and battery of a hybrid vehicle by selecting the lambda based on the identified lambda map. The effect on fuel consumption of the control strategies developed using the rule-based controller, ECMSwDP, A-ECMS, and DP was simulated using the parallel hybrid bus model developed in this research. The control strategies developed using A-ECMS are able to significantly improve the fuel economy while maintaining the battery charge sustainability. The corrected fuel economy observed with A-ECMS with a penalty function and the average lambda of RDPs was 5.55%, 13.67%, and 19.19% gap to that observed with DP when operated over the Beijing cycle, WVU-CSI cycle, and the actual transit bus route, respectively. The corrected fuel economy observed with A-ECMS with lambda maps of the RDPs was 4.83%, 10.61%, and 14.33% gap to that observed with DP when operated on the Beijing cycle, WVU-CSI cycle, and actual transit bus route, respectively. The simulation results demonstrated that the proposed A-ECMS approaches have the capability to achieve real time suboptimal control of a HEV while maintaining the charge sustainability of the battery.