Yang Song

Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Physical Activity and Sport Sciences


Physical Education Teacher Education

Committee Chair

Stephen Harvey

Committee Co-Chair

Sean M Bulger

Committee Member

James C Hannon

Committee Member

Karen Rambo Hernandez

Committee Member

Emily M Jones


Background/Purpose: Few researchers have investigated college students' physical activity levels and motivations within university Basic Instruction Programs (BIPs) when students engaged in different games (modified games, small-sided games, and full-sided games) from different sports categories (e.g., net/wall games and invasion games). Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate college students' Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) and motivations while playing different games in badminton and soccer classes. The study also examined how well motivation levels predict MVPA.;Methods/Analysis: Seventy-one college students (57 males and 14 females) from a rural Mid-Atlantic university participated in and finished the study. They came from three soccer classes and two badminton classes. The author utilized Actigraph GT3X triaxial accelerometers to collect MVPA data and the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI) questionnaires to measure motivation. The included IMI subscales are interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, and effort/importance. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA and a two-way repeated measures, within-between interaction MANOVA were utilized to examine the MVPA and IMI data respectively in the two different sports and the three different game forms. Two separate one-way repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni correction (p = .025) were also utilized to test whether MVPA differed in the three games forms for each sport (i.e., badminton and soccer).Three multiple regression tests were conducted to examine how the IMI data and sports predict MVPA. One regression test was utilized for each of the game forms.;Results: Students in the soccer classes had statistically significant more MVPA than those in badminton. The game forms in which students had the most MVPA were different in the two sports. For example, students in soccer classes had most MVPA in full-sided games, but students in badminton classes had most MVPA in small-sided games. Students reported similar scores in the three IMI subscales when data were aggregated. However, the game forms in which students felt competent and made effort were different in the two sports. For example, students in soccer classes felt most competent and made the greatest effort in modified games, but students in badminton classes felt most competent and made the greatest effort in small-sided games.In modified games, interest was the only statistically significant predictor of MVPA. Perceived competence was a statistically significant predictor of MVPA in small-sided games and full-sided games.;Discussion: With similar motivation qualities between soccer and badminton, students in badminton classes had statistically significant less MVPA than those in soccer classes. The MVPA difference was due to the different nature of the sports and the range of student ability levels within each sport.;Conclusion: PE teachers should actively observe students' game play and make adjustments to game forms to find the optimal balance of MVPA and student motivation.