Date of Graduation
Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design
Forest Resource Management
Eastern hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr (Pinales: Pinaceae), is an important component of both the urban and forest landscape of the eastern United States. Eastern hemlock has been heavily impacted by the introduction of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Two goals of this research were (1) to determine the effect of treatment timing (spring versus fall) and application method (tree injection versus soil injection) on the spatial and temporal distribution of imidacloprid the primary insecticide used to treat A. tsugae and (2) to assess the impact of application method and timing of imidacloprid treatments on the arthropods associated with eastern hemlock. The results of this study showed that xylem fluid concentrations of imidacloprid were significantly (P < 0.05) higher for spring applications than for fall applications, and for trunk injections than soil injections in the first year post treatment. A diverse group of arthropods, making up 393 species, were collected by branch beating the lower crowns of eastern hemlock. No significant (P > 0.05) differences in arthropod abundance were found between imidacloprid treated and control trees and application methods. An extensive literature review revealed 484 native and exotic arthropods from three different taxonomic classes and 21 different orders associated with eastern hemlock in North America. A total of five arthropod species were eastern hemlock dependent, and are likely to experience local extirpation as a result of declining and dying eastern hemlock. In addition, an assessment of the impact of application method and timing of imidacloprid treatments on the spider communities were carried out because spiders are the primary arthropod predator present in the crown of eastern hemlock. No significant (P > 0.05) differences in spider abundance were found between imidacloprid treated and control trees and application methods. This study provides fundamental information to aid the conservation and management of eastern hemlock and biodivisity at risk due to extensive applications of imidacloprid.
Turcotte, Richard M., "Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Imidacloprid and the Arthropod Fauna Associated with Eastern Hemlock, Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr" (2016). Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports. 6836.