Date of Graduation


Document Type


Degree Type



College of Education and Human Services


Communication Sciences and Disorders

Committee Chair

Jayne Brandel

Committee Member

Michelle Moore

Committee Member

Alexandra Hollo


The aim of this project was to examine the use of action, metacognitive, and metalinguistic verbs in narratives relative to age-related growth for children with typical language and their peers with a language-based disorder. While limited information is known about the use of these differing verb types, there is evidence to show that metacognitive and metalinguistic verbs are less salient than action verbs, and therefore have a longer trajectory of acquisition. The oral narratives of 84 typically developing students were coded for occurrences of action verbs, metacognitive verbs, and metalinguistic verbs to obtain a total use as well as to examine the number of different verb types in each category used by the participants. In addition, the use of these verbs by 76 children with typical language were compared to those of 38 age-matched children with language impairment. The results indicated that an increase in age lead to a significant increase in the number of action, metacognitive, and metalinguistic verbs used. The findings also revealed that children with typical language used a wider variety of verbs in their narratives as compared to those with a language-based disorder.