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The purpose of this study was to provide educators and developers of computer-assisted instruction with a validated, concise list of visual and iconographic design principles that should be considered when designing graphical icons to stimulate learning as a part of the user interface of their courseware packages in order to create more effective learning. A panel of 12 experts in a modified Delphi study identified and validated visual and iconographic design principles necessary in the development of icons for CAI. As a result of this study, 37 visual and iconographic design principles were identified and validated. The final conclusions of this study revolve around the success of the modified Delphi process in gathering perceptions of expert panel members. The panelists were able to consistently achieve consensus on all items. Through the use of this process, 37 visual and iconographic design principles were identified, along with their importance ratings thus providing a hierarchical ordering that presents principles in order of most important to least important. Of the 37 principles identified, 32 were considered important in the design of icons for CAI; three of the 37 were considered not as important; and, two were considered not important. Moreover, this study identified iconographic principles as being more dominant in the design of CAI and indicated that, on the surface there were perceptible differences in the number of visual and iconographic design principles rated as important based on experiential factors associated with the Delphi panel member. The composite nature of the visual and iconographic design principles clearly indicated that educators should be aware of and understand the use of each of the design principles in order to utilize CAI as an effective learning enhancer. The value of this research lay in its implications for educators who develop CAI courseware and for manufacturers who develop authoring tools. The application of this research would reduce time, frustration, and cost associated with educators developing CAI. Furthermore, the application of this research would increase the iconographic design aptitude and knowledge of future educators developing icons as a part of their CAI packages thus enhancing the learning process of their students.