Airi Naoi

Date of Graduation


Document Type



The present study assessed the effectiveness of cognitive and relaxation interventions on injured athletes' mood, pain, optimism, and adherence and compliance to rehabilitation. The total number of participants who completed this study was seven injured athletes (two females and five males) representing one NCAA Division I university (n = 6) and one NCAA Division II university (n = 1). All athletes incurred their injuries during participation in their sports and had surgery within one month prior to their season or during their competitive season. All participants needed more than 12 weeks for complete recovery after surgery, and they were recruited within 7 days after surgery. This study utilized an ABCA multiple baseline design across participants. Participants were exposed to a baseline period (A), two interventions (B) (C), cognitive intervention and relaxation, and a second baseline period (A). The effects of intervention were examined by changes in mean, level, trend, latency, and variability. The results of these analyses indicated that there is a probability three participants received benefits by receiving the cognitive intervention. Additionally, there is a probability two participants received benefits from the relaxation intervention. Furthermore, two participants probably benefited from both interventions. Three participants who received benefits from one or both interventions as indicated by the data also perceived one or both interventions to be effective. The results of intercorrelations among dependent variables supported the following hypotheses: (1) a positive relationship existed between optimism and recovery speed; (2) a negative relationship existed between recovery speed and tension; and (3) a negative relationship existed between rehabilitation compliance and pain. Recommendations about future directions for psychological interventions for injured athletes are provided.