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The present study examined biases in diagnosing, treating, and conceptualizing PTSD based on clinician variables, such as theoretical orientation, and patient population characteristics, such as type of trauma, patient gender, and patient age. Surveys were mailed to members of APA and AABT containing case descriptions of a child sexual abuse victim, an adult rape survivor, and a Vietnam combat veteran, each meeting criteria for PTSD, and five questions requesting: (a) working diagnoses, (b) target symptoms, (c) treatment goals, (d) recommendations for treatment, and (e) etiology. A total of 126 completed surveys were returned from an equal number of male and female respondents. The results of the study indicated diagnostic agreement of only 38% for PTSD as the primary diagnosis across all cases. Although cases met criteria for PTSD, affective disorders were diagnosed almost as often as PTSD. There were no effects for gender. However, age of patient was related to diagnosis with Adult Cases more likely to receive the diagnosis of PTSD than the Child Cases. Symptom identification and treatment selection were significantly related to type of case. Intervention selection and etiological conceptualization were related to clinician variables (e.g., theoretical orientation). Several interactions among dependent variables were also found. The implications of these findings are discussed, and recommendations are made.