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A multidimensional theoretical model, Conceptual Change Science Learning (CCSL), was developed based on Standard Model of Conceptual Change and Cognitive Reconstruction of Knowledge Model. The model addresses three main components of science learning, namely the learner's conceptual ecology, the message along with its social context, and the cognitive engagement. A learner's conceptual ecology is organized around three clusters, including epistemological beliefs, existing conceptions, and motivation. Learner's cognitive engagement is represented by a continuum from peripheral processing involving shallow cognitive engagement to central processing involving deep cognitive engagement. Through reciprocal, non-sequential interactions of such constructs, the learners' conceptual change is achieved. Using a quantitative empirical approach, three studies were conducted to investigate the theoretical constructs based on the CCSL Model. The first study reports the development and validation of the hypothesized and factor-analytic scales comprising the instrument, Science Learning Inventory (SLI) intended for college students. The self-report instrument was designed in two parts, SLI-A (conceptual ecology and cognitive engagement) with 48 initial items, and SLI-B (science epistemology) with 49 initial items. The items for SLI-B were based on the tenets of Nature of Science as reflected in the recent reform documents, Science for All Americans (Project 2061) and National Science Education Standards. The results of factor analysis indicated seven factors for SLI-A and four factors for SLI-B. The second study investigated the criterion-related (conceptual change) predictive validity of the SLI in an instructional setting (a college-level physics course). The findings suggested the possibility of different interplay of factors and dynamics depending on the nature of the criterion (gain scores from a three-week intervention versus final course grade). Gain scores were predicted by “self-reflective study behavior” and “science self-efficacy” scales of SLI, whereas the course grade was predicted by “metacognitive engagement” and “dynamic scientific truth,” (a factor from science epistemology). The third study investigated the effects of text-based conceptual-change strategy (Enhanced Refutational Text; ERT) on Newtonian Laws of Motion, and the efficacy of the SLI scales in a controlled setting. Also, initial divergent and convergent validity procedures are reported in the study. The results provided partial support for the superiority of ERT over expository text. The ERT was an effective intervention for students with no prior physics background but not for students with prior physics background.