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Eberly College of Arts and Sciences


Health Research Center


We report the first occurrence of congenital scoliosis in an early Permian aquatic parareptile, Stereosternum tumidum from Parana ́ state, Brazil. The spine malformation is caused by a congenital hemivertebra. These observations give insight into the biomechanical aspects of underwater locomotion in an axial skeleton-compromised aquatic amniote. This is the oldest record of a hemivertebra in an aquatic animal.

Source Citation

Szczygielski T, Surmik D, Kapuścińska A, Rothschild BM (2017) The oldest record of aquatic amniote congenital scoliosis. PLoS ONE 12(9): e0185338. pone.0185338


© 2017 Szczygielski et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.



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