Document Type

Conference Proceeding

Publication Date



Eberly College of Arts and Sciences


Social Work


Partnerships between traditionally non-profit social services (the theme of the conference), funded by various donative arrangements and subsidized by government contracts, and any type of commercial business ventures are still relative rare in the mainstream of U.S. social work today. We can identify three distinct positions on the question among scholars in the U.S. today: A general management perspective found in business schools, a public affairs perspective found in schools of public administration, and two perspectives among social workers. The vast majority of those social work have undoubtedly never heard of this issue. Yet, a very small portion of social work educators, students and practitioners have been interested in this question at least since the Reagan Administration. It would require major change for social work in the U.S. to become part of the international movement for social enterprise.

Source Citation

Presented at the First International Symposium on the Activation of Community Social Welfare, Seoul, Korea, October 17, 2003. Lohmann, R. A. (2003). Published in Partnerships of nonprofit organizations and business for the development of community social welfare activities: The American experience. Proceedings from First International Symposium on the Activation of Community Social Welfare, Seoul, Korea. 81-98.


Author's preprint; Conference proceedings were published in English and Korean in a limited edition distributed only to conference participants.



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