Document Type


Publication Date



Eberly College of Arts and Sciences


Social Work


What is the nature of the bonds among participants in nonprofit organizations and voluntary action, and between philanthropic givers and recipients, and how do these affect the behavior of third sector actors and those in other sectors? Mutuality accounts for the intermediary bulwark which offers a primary protection of the individual from the state. Except through Tocqueville, mutuality has had very little impact on American legal and political philosophy until quite recently. Mutuality is a principal concern of some communitarians, particularly Taylor, Sandel and Bell. Communitarianism is one of the few instances of focus on this important problem. This paper examines three approaches to communitarianism, termed movement communitarianism, reluctant communitarianism and justice communitarianism.

Source Citation

An earlier version of this paper titled “Communitarianism and the Third Sector” was presented at the Annual Meeting, Association for Research on Nonprofit Organizations and Voluntary Action (ARNOVA). Cleveland. November, 1995.



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