Document Type


Publication Date



We use fully nonlinear numerical relativity techniques to study high energy head-on collision of nonspinning, equal-mass black holes to estimate the maximum gravitational radiation emitted by these systems. Our simulations include improvements in the construction of initial data, subsequent full numerical evolutions, and the computation of waveforms at infinity. The new initial data significantly reduces the spurious radiation content, allowing for initial speeds much closer to the speed of light, i.e. \(v\sim0.99c\). Using these new techniques, We estimate the maximum radiated energy from head-on collisions to be \(E_{\text{max}}/M_{\text{ADM}}=0.13\pm0.01\). This value differs from the second-order perturbative \((0.164)\) and zero-frequency-limit \((0.17)\) analytic computations, but is close to those obtained by thermodynamic arguments \((0.134)\) and by previous numerical estimates \((0.14\pm0.03)\).

Source Citation

Healy, James., Ruchlin, Ian., Lousto, Carlos O., & Zlochower, Yosef. (2016). High Energy Collisions Of Black Holes Numerically Revisited. Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation, and Cosmology, 94(10).



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.