Document Type


Publication Date





Many domesticated crop plants have been bred for increased apical dominance, displaying greatly reduced axillary branching compared to their wild ancestors. In maize, this was achieved through selection for a gain-of-function allele of the TCP transcription factor teosinte branched1 (tb1). The mechanism for how a dominant Tb1 allele increased apical dominance, is unknown. Through ChIP seq, RNA seq, hormone and sugar measurements on 1 mm axillary bud tissue, we identify the genetic pathways putatively regulated by TB1. These include pathways regulating phytohormones such as gibberellins, abscisic acid and jasmonic acid, but surprisingly, not auxin. In addition, metabolites involved in sugar sensing such as trehalose 6-phosphate were increased. This suggests that TB1 induces bud suppression through the production of inhibitory phytohormones and by reducing sugar levels and energy balance. Interestingly, TB1 also putatively targets several other domestication loci, including teosinte glume architecture1, prol1.1/grassy tillers1, as well as itself. This places tb1 on top of the domestication hierarchy, demonstrating its critical importance during the domestication of maize from teosinte.

Source Citation

Dong, Z., Xiao, Y., Govindarajulu, R., Feil, R., Siddoway, M. L., Nielsen, T., … Chuck, G. (2019). The regulatory landscape of a core maize domestication module controlling bud dormancy and growth repression. Nature Communications, 10(1).


Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit licenses/by/4.0/.

Included in

Biology Commons



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.