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The Green Bank Telescope H II Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) found hundreds of previously unknown Galactic regions of massive star formation by detecting hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) emission from candidate H II region targets. Since the HRDS nebulae lie at large distances from the Sun, they are located in previously unprobed zones of the Galactic disk. Here, we derive the properties of helium and carbon RRL emission from HRDS nebulae. Our target sample is the subset of the HRDS that has visible helium or carbon RRLs. This criterion gives a total of 84 velocity components (14% of the HRDS) with helium emission and 52 (9%) with carbon emission. For our highest quality sources, the average 4He+/H+ abundance ratio by number, y +, is 0.068 ± 0.023(1σ). This is the same ratio as that measured for the sample of previously known Galactic H II regions. Nebulae without detected helium emission give robust y + upper limits. There are 5 RRL emission components with y + less than 0.04 and another 12 with upper limits below this value. These H II regions must have either a very low 4He abundance or contain a significant amount of neutral helium. The HRDS has 20 nebulae with carbon RRL emission but no helium emission at its sensitivity level. There is no correlation between the carbon RRL parameters and the 8 μm mid-infrared morphology of these nebulae.

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Wenger, Trey V., Bania, T. M., Balser, Dana S., & Anderson, L. D. (2013). The Green Bank Telescope H Ii Region Discovery Survey. Iv. Helium And Carbon Recombination Lines. The Astrophysical Journal, 764(1), 34.



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