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Publication Date



School of Pharmacy


Pharmaceutical Systems and Policy


We examined the real-world utilization and persistence of rapid acting insulin (RAI) in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes who added RAI to their drug (OAD) regimen. Insulin-na¨ıve patients aged ≥65 years, with ≥1 OAD prescription during the baseline period, who were continuously enrolled in the US Humana Medicare Advantage insurance plan for 18 months and initiated RAI were included. Among patients with ≥2 RAI prescriptions (RAIp), persistence during the 12-month follow-up was assessed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified factors affecting RAI use and persistence. Of 3734 patients adding RAI to their OAD regimen, 2334 (62.5%) had a RAIp during follow-up. Factors associated with RAIp included using ≤2 OADs; cognitive impairment, basal insulin use during follow-up; and higher RAI out-of-pocket costs ($36 to <$56 versus $0 to $6.30). Patients were less likely to persist with RAI when on ≤2 OADs versus ≥3 OADs and when having higher RAI out-of-pocket costs ($36 to <$56 versus $0 to $6.30) and more likely to persist when they had cognitive impairment and basal insulin use during follow-up. Real-world persistence of RAI in insulin-na¨ıve elderly patients with type 2 diabetes was very poor when RAI was added to an OAD regimen.

Source Citation

Sambamoorthi, U., Deb, A., Zhou, S., Garg, R., Fan, T., & Boss, A. (2016). Rapid Acting Insulin Use and Persistence among Elderly Type 2 Diabetes Patients Adding RAI to Oral Antidiabetes Drug Regimens. Journal of Diabetes Research, 2016, 1–12.


Copyright © 2016 Usha Sambamoorthi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.



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