Document Type


Publication Date



Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design


Animal and Nutritional Sciences


This study investigated the development of rat oocytes in vitro and in vivo following intracytoplasmic injection of heads from spermatozoa heat-dried at 50°C for 8 h and stored at 4°C in different gas phases. Sperm membrane and chromosome are damaged by the process of heat-drying. Oocyte activation and cleavage of oocytes were worse in oocytes injected with spermatozoa heat-dried and stored for 1 week than unheated, fresh spermatozoa, but in heat-dried spermatozoa, there were no differences in these abilities of oocytes between the samples stored in nitrogen gas and in air. The oocytes injected with heat-dried spermatozoa stored for 1 week could develop to the morula and blastocyst stages without difference between the samples stored in nitrogen gas and in air after artificial stimulation. Cleavage of oocytes and development of cleaved embryos were higher when heat-dried spermatozoa were stored for 3 and 6 months in nitrogen gas than in air. However, the ability of injected oocytes to develop to the morula and blastocyst stages was not inhibited even when heat-dried spermatozoa stored in both atmosphere conditions for as long as 6 months were used. When 2-cell embryos derived from oocytes injected with heads from spermatozoa heat-dried and stored for 1 week and 1 month were transferred, each 1 of 4 recipients was conceived, and the conceived recipients delivered 1 live young each. These results demonstrate that rat oocytes can be fertilized with heat-dried spermatozoa and that the fertilized oocytes can develop to term.

Source Citation

Lee K-B, Park K-E, Kwon I-K, Tripurani SK, Kim KJ, Lee JH, et al. (2013) Develop to Term Rat Oocytes Injected with Heat-Dried Sperm Heads. PLoS ONE 8(11): e78260.


© 2013 Lee et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


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