Document Type


Publication Date



Eberly College of Arts and Sciences


Social Work


The years since 1980 have been particularly troublesome and challenging for human service leaders at all levels in the United States. If the human services are to rediscover the future and with it a viable program for meeting identified needs, some acceptable alternative to the progressive vision of a service state must evolve.

Source Citation

A revised and edited version of this manuscript was published as “Resource Development as Executive Leadership” in Felice Perlmutter, Ed. Human Services at Risk: Administrative Strategies for Survival. Lexington Books: Lexington MA. 1984. 93-108.


For another consideration of this question, see also my paper “Private Human Services in Welfare Society”



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