Document Type


Publication Date



Davis College of Agriculture, Natural Resources and Design


Division of Animal and Nutritional Sciences



To develop and test the validity of program outcome evaluation instruments for cooking, eating, and playing together for obesity prevention during iCook 4-H.


Instrument development for both youth and adults through pre-post testing of items newly constructed and compiled to address key curriculum constructs. Testing occurred throughout program intervention and dissemination to determine dimensionality, internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and validity.


A 5-state out-of-school program in cooperative extension and other community sites.


Youths aged 9–10 years; adults were main food preparers; the first phase involved 214 dyads and the second phase, 74 dyads.

Main Outcome Measure(s)

Youth measures were cooking skills, culinary self-efficacy, physical activity, and openness to new foods. Adult measures were cooking together, physical activity, and eating together.


Exploratory factor analysis to determine initial scale structure and confirmatory factor analysis to confirm factor structures. Longitudinal invariance tests to see whether the factor structure held over time. Test-retest reliability was determined by Pearson r and internal consistency was determined by coefficient Ω and Cronbach α. Validity testing was determined by Pearson rcorrelations.


Youth cooking skills, openness to new foods, and adult eating together and cooking together showed strong evidence for dimensionality, reliability, and validity. Youth physical activity and adult physical activity measures showed strong evidence for dimensionality and validity but not reliability. The youth culinary self-efficacy measure showed strong evidence for reliability and validity but weaker evidence for dimensionality.

Conclusions and Implications

Program outcome evaluation instruments for youths and adults were developed and tested to accompany the iCook 4-Hcurriculum. Program leaders, stakeholders, and administrators may monitor outcomes within and across programs and generate consistent reporting.

Source Citation

Mathews, D. R., Kunicki, Z. J., Colby, S. E., Franzen-Castle, L., Kattelmann, K. K., Olfert, M. D., & White, A. A. (2019). Development and Testing of Program Evaluation Instruments for the iCook 4-H Curriculum. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 51(3), S21–S29.


Copyright 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier, Inc. on behalf of the Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. This is an open access article under the CC BY license. (http://

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Nutrition Commons



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