Author ORCID Identifier

Document Type


Publication Date



Statler College of Engineering and Mining Resources


Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering


Herein we report 2D printing in microgravity of aqueous-based foams containing metal oxide nanoparticles. Such hierarchical foams have potential space applications, for example for in situ habitat repair work, or for UV shielding. Foam line patterns of a TiO2-containing foam have been printed onto glass substrates via Direct Foam Writing (DFW) under microgravity conditions through a parabolic aircraft flight. Initial characterization of the foam properties (printed foam line width, bubble size, etc.) are presented. It has been found that gravity plays a significant role in the process of direct foam writing. The foam spread less over the substrate when deposited in microgravity as compared to Earth gravity. This had a direct impact on the cross-sectional area and surface roughness of the printed lines. Additionally, the contact angle of deionized water on a film exposed to microgravity was higher than that of a film not exposed to microgravity, due to the increased surface roughness of films exposed to microgravity.

Source Citation

Cordonier, G.J., Sharafati, C., Mays, S. et al. Direct foam writing in microgravity. npj Microgravity 7, 55 (2021).


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