Document Type


Publication Date



School of Medicine




Autoimmune Encephalitis (AIE) is a rare and complex group of disorders wherein the body’s immune system attacks and causes inflammatory changes in the central nervous system (CNS). It presents with altered mental status and a diverse range of typical and atypical symptoms and neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings. The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of early identification of neurological symptoms, prompt diagnosis with neuroimaging and CSF findings, and timely management for early and complete resolution of the disease and long-term benefits. We report eight AIE cases from a single academic center confirmed by the presence of specific serum and CSF autoantibodies. The patients were mostly women, with imaging findings showing T2-weighted (T2), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), hyperintensities/changes in cortical/mesio-temporal regions on a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and delta brush wave patterns or epileptogenic patterns on an electroencephalogram (EEG). Among the antibodies, the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antibody (AB) was most frequently identified, and CSF lymphocytosis and elevated CSF glucose were found in majority of the cases, CSF pleocytosis and elevated protein only in a minority of patients, and oligoclonal bands (OCBs) only in NMDA-R encephalitis. Early treatment with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), steroids, plasmapheresis (PLEX), and rituximab was started in most cases, and all of them responded well and survived, but some had residual symptoms or relapses.

Source Citation

Wu H, Yu H, Joseph J, Jaiswal S, Pasham SR, Sriwastava S. Neuroimaging and CSF Findings in Patients with Autoimmune Encephalitis: A Report of Eight Cases in a Single Academic Center. Neurology International. 2022; 14(1):176-185.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.