Document Type


Publication Date



Analysis of variance is one of the most commonly used statistical techniques among ecologists and evolutionary biologists. Because many ecological experiments involve random as well as fixed effects, the most appropriate analysis of variance model to use is often the mixed model. Consideration of effects in an analysis of variance as fixed or random is critical if correct tests are to be made and if correct inferences are to be drawn from these tests. A literature review was conducted to determine whether authors are generally aware of the differences between fixed and random effects and whether they are performing analyses consistent with their consideration. All articles (excluding Notes and Comments) in Ecology and Evolution for the years 1990 and 1991 were reviewed.

Source Citation

Bennington, Cynthia C., &Thayne, William V. (1994). Use And Misuse Of Mixed Model Analysis Of Variance In Ecological Studies. Ecology (Brooklyn, NY), 75(3), 717-722.