Document Type


Publication Date



Eberly College of Arts and Sciences


Social Work


Circumstances in the development of rural aging services in the 1960s and 1970s produced four distinct community leadership styles in the aging network. These are described and labeled the pre-organizational, the grantsman or leadership planner style, the organizational or managerial style and the organized advocacy style.

Source Citation

Paper presented at the Third National Conference on Social Work in Rural Areas. Morgantown WV. August, 1978 and published in the Proceedings, with an Afterword (2019).


This paper was based on my experiences and involvements in developing services for the rural aged in three states: Minnesota, Tennessee and West Virginia. It includes footnotes and an afterword commentary, written in 2019, noting certain enduring similarities to conditions in rural communities in 1978 and 2019.


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