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Mountaineer Undergraduate Research Review

Document Type

Article

Abstract

High carbohydrate intake has been reported to contribute to obesity by promoting de novo lipogenesis and metabolic disorders by altering tissue fatty acid composition. The type of caloric sweeteners added to beverages has changed with some sugars suggested to be more lipogenic. Therefore, the study objective was to determine the effect of consuming different types of caloric sugar-sweetened solutions on tissue fatty acid composition and risk of metabolic disorders. Growing female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned (n=7-8 rats/group) to drink water or water sweetened with 13% (w/v) glucose, sucrose, fructose or high fructose corn syrup 55 (HFCS-55). The rats were provided their assigned sugar-sweetened solution and purified diet ad libitum. After 8 weeks, fat pads and liver were dissected and tissue fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. Serum cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), lipoprotein profile, and liver function were determined by enzymatic colorimetric assays. The type of sugar appeared to have different effects on fatty acid composition and dyslipidemia. Rats drinking HFCS-55 solution had greater de novo lipogenesis indicated by higher (P=0.003) palmitoleic acid and lower (P=0.03) linoleic acid in the liver compared to rats drinking water. In the adipose tissue, linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid was lower (P<0.05) in rats drinking HFCS-55 solution compared to rats drinking water. Dyslipidemia in rats drinking HFCS-55 solution was indicated by increased hepatic lipid content, serum TG, and low density lipoprotein. This has important health implications since HFCS-55 has become the major caloric sweetener added to beverages.

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