The continuing decline in the U.S. coal industry has implications that differ from industry to industry and from region to region. These differences in industry implications arise because of the nature of the coal industry ecosystem (CIE), in which each industry occupies its unique position in the coal industry supply chain. There are industries that provide goods and services directly to the coal industry, and those that supply the coal industry indirectly via provision of goods and services to the first-level suppliers and to their suppliers throughout subsequent supply chain levels and linkages. Likewise, each region has a uniquemix of industries, so as collections of industries, regional economies also vary in terms of their position in the CIE, and in terms of the extent to which they are aligned with the coal industry. These critical differences, in turn, give rise to impacts of coal decline that can vary substantially from region to region, from state to state, and from county to county.
Jackson, Randall and Jarosi, Peter, "County-level CIE Supply Chain Analysis" (2018). Appalachian Coal Industry Ecosystem. 4.