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Increases in opioid misuse and injection drug use have resulted in a rise in acute cases of hepatitis B. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized studies to determine the effect (pooled odds ratio) of interventions to increase hepatitis B vaccination completion in people who inject drugs (PWID). Odds ratios from the included studies were combined to create a pooled odds ratio (OR) using the Inverse Heterogeneity Model. Eleven studies met the eligibility criterion of having a randomized intervention to increase hepatitis B virus vaccination completion among PWID. The odds of vaccine completion in the intervention group were greater than in the control/comparison group (pooled OR, 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–5.99). Subgroup analysis indicated that financial incentives were most effective (OR, 7.01; 95% CI, 2.88–17.06), followed by accelerated vaccine schedules (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.14–3.14). Interventions using financial incentives and accelerated vaccine schedules are moderately effective at increasing hepatitis B vaccination completion in PWID.

Source Citation

Tressler, S., & Bhandari, R. (2019). Interventions to Increase Completion of Hepatitis B Vaccination in People who Inject Drugs: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Open Forum Infectious Diseases, 6(12).


© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs licence (, which permits non-commercial reproduction and distribution of the work, in any medium, provided the original work is not altered or transformed in any way, and that the work is properly cited.

This article received support from the WVU Libraries' Open Access Author Fund.

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