Document Type


Publication Date



Eberly College of Arts and Sciences


Physics and Astronomy


Doping photorefractive single crystals of Sn2P2S6 with antimony introduces both electron and hole traps. In as-grown crystals, Sb3+ (5s2 ) ions replace Sn2+ ions. These Sb3+ ions are either isolated (with no nearby perturbing defects) or they have a chargecompensating Sn2+ vacancy at a nearest-neighbor Sn site. When illuminated with 633 nm laser light, isolated Sb3+ ions trap electrons and become Sb2+ (5s2 5p1 ) ions. In contrast, Sb3+ ions with an adjacent Sn vacancy trap holes during illumination. The hole is primarily localized on the (P2S6) 4− anionic unit next to the Sb3+ ion and Sn2+ vacancy. These trapped electrons and holes are thermally stable below ∼200 K, and they are observed with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) at temperatures below 150 K. Resolved hyperfine interactions with 31P, 121Sb, and 123Sb nuclei are used to establish the defect models.

Source Citation

Kananen, B. E., Golden, E. M., Basun, S. A., Evans, D. R., Grabar, A. A., Stoika, I. M., … Halliburton, L. E. (2016). Dual role of Sb ions as electron traps and hole traps in photorefractive Sn_2P_2S_6 crystals. Optical Materials Express, 6(12), 3992.



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